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孔祥忠:水泥行业的过剩产能、过载产能、低值产能

更新日期: 2020年08月14日 作者: 孔祥忠 来源: 数字水泥网 【字体:
摘要:笔者从推进国家生态文明建设战略的角度,研究提出水泥去产能包含去过剩产能、去过载产能、去低值产能的论点,从而得出:水泥去产能需要政府多部门协同推进,去产能任务是长期的,要支持市场化创新模式去产能。

CHUXIANCHANNENGYANZHONGGUOSHENGSHIGUOJIAGONGYEHUAGUOCHENGZHONGDEBIRANXIANXIANG。ZHILICHANNENGYANZHONGGUOSHENGBIXUJINXINGJIEGOUDIAOZHENG,XINGYEJIEGOUDIAOZHENGDEZHELIDIANZAIYUGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE,GONGJICEGAIGEDEGUANJIANSHIQUCHANNENG,WENBUQUCHANNENGCAINENGSHIXIANXINGYEGAOZHILIANGFAZHAN。

BIZHECONGTUIJINGUOJIASHENGTAIWENMINGJIANSHEZHANLVEDEJIAODU,YANJIUTICHUSHUINIQUCHANNENGBAOHANQUGUOSHENGCHANNENG、QUGUOZAICHANNENG、QUDIZHICHANNENGDELUNDIAN,CONGERDECHU:SHUINIQUCHANNENGXUYAOZHENGFUDUOBUMENXIETONGTUIJIN,QUCHANNENGRENWUSHIZHANGQIDE,YAOZHICHISHICHANGHUACHUANGXINMOSHIQUCHANNENG。

一、产能规模、过剩产能、过载产能、低值产能

1.产能规模:av在线播放网站是指在一段时期内,由一定规格主机组成的制造系统所能形成的生产能力,是建厂工程设计时确定的,称作设计产能。一个企业(集团)有一至多条生产线构成了企业产能规模。汇总一个区域(或全国)所有企业产能就形成了行业产能规模。由于企业技术和管理水平的提升,往往生产线的实际产能大于设计产能,为真实分析市场供需关系,行业协会一般采用实际产能规模数据。

2.过剩产能:av在线播放网站是从产品市场供需数量比值的产能利用率来界定。水泥行业产能利用率达80-85%时为合理区间,低于65%时易于引起市场恶性竞争,为产能严重过剩。经济投资增长和人口增加,水泥的消费总量和消费基数也增加。气候变化带来的施工进度调整会影响水泥短期供给矛盾,但不会造成全年产能利用率的大变化。

3.过载产能:是指企业生产经营带来的污染排放量和物流量,超过该区域环境承载力时的产能。绝大多数水泥企业都是合规生产和达标排放,都是合法产能,但合法产能的污染物总排放量和产生的物流量超过当地有限的环境承载力时,政府部门也会要求企业停产和限流,加之民众环境意识的增强,投诉或网上披露环境问题也给企业带来压力。因此,环境承载力也会倒逼过载产能退出。

4.低值产能:av在线播放网站是指企业土地资源经济产出小和较长期处于停产的“僵尸产能”。在同一区域内,水泥企业占地面积相同,但产能规模不同,劳动生产率就有差异;产能规模和占地面积相同,也会因管理或品种差异带来经济贡献的差异;土地和矿山作为企业重要的生产经营要素,随着城市规划和环境规划,其资源价值也在变化。企业占有土地资源所创造的可比经济产出小,就是低值产能。还有长期不能运行的生产线,在账面上就是不能产生效益的无效资产,也是低值产能。

二、压减过剩产能、过载产能、低值产能和淘汰落后产能的政策导向

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CHANYEZHENGCESHIWEILEXIEDIAOGONGXUJIEGOUMAODUN,TUIDONGZIYUANYOUXIAOPEIZHI,TISHENGXINGYEGUIMOXIAOYING,TIXIANGUOJIAZHILIYIZHI。DANGCHANNENGYANZHONGGUOSHENGZAOCHENGXIAOYIXIAOLVDIXIA,QIESHICHANGHENNANZIWOXIUFUDEQINGKUANGXIA,CHANYEZHENGCEDUIXINGYEZHANGQIWENDINGFAZHANJIUQIDAOLEJIAQIANGHONGGUANKONGZHIDEZHENGMIANDAOXIANGZUOYONG。ZAIZHONGGUOTESEZHUBOFULIZAIXIAN ZHUYIZHIDUXIA,BIXUJIANCHI“SIGEZIXIN”,QUCHANNENGBIXUJIANLIZAICHANYEZHENGCEDEYINDAOZHIXIA。CHANYEZHENGCEYINDAOQUCHANNENGSHIZHENGFUTUIDONG、TONGCHOUXIEDIAO、YIFAYIGUI、SHICHANGDAOBI。

1.压减过剩产能:av在线播放网站是以促进产品供需动态平衡为原则,不断提升行业整体效益、效率和维护市场公平竞争环境。压减过剩产能包含控制新增产能、淘汰落后产能、稳定有效供给。过剩熟料产能和水泥产能都是压减产能的对象。现有的国务院办公厅《关于促进建材工业稳增长调结构增效益的指导意见》、《产业结构调整指导目录》、《水泥玻璃行业产能置换实施办法》、《关于进一步做好水泥错峰生产的通知》、《工业产品生产许可证管理》等政策,对压减水泥过剩产能都起到了重要作用,尤其是产能置换和错峰生产两项政策创新,在水泥供给侧结构性改革中成效显著。

CHANNENGJIANLIANGZHIHUANCONGKONGZHIXINZENGCHANNENGJIAODU,JIYOULIYUZENGQIANGGUIMOXIAOYIHEYOUHUASHICHANGBUJU,YOUQIDAOLETAOTAILUOHOUCHANNENGHEGUANBIQIYELIYIBUCHANGDEXIAOGUO。CUOFENGSHENGCHANCONGYOUXIAOKONGZHICHANCHUJIAODU,JICUJINGONGXUDONGTAIPINGHENGHEYOUXIAOHUAJIECHANNENGGUOSHENG,YOUQIDAOLEYOULIHUANJINGBAOHUHEQIANGHUAXINGYEZILVCHENGXINDEZUOYONG。CUOFENGSHENGCHANSHISHUINIXINGYEYONGZHENGCELIHAODESHIJIANQUHUANQUWEILAIQUCHANNENGDEKONGJIAN。XIWANGGONGXINBUMENBUDUANWANSHANXIANYOUZHENGCEHECUOSHI,TUIJINSHICHANGHUAQUCHANNENGZHUANXIANGJIJINSHELI,JIADAYAJIANGUOSHENGCHANNENGLIDU。

2.压减过载产能:av在线播放网站是以环境负荷总量控制为原则,不断降低企业生产经营中产生的污染物排放量和绿色发展水平。压减过载产能重点是环境敏感地区和重污染地区的水泥企业,会因环境负荷总量控制倒逼而逐步退出过载产能,地方政府会以环境问题、城镇规划要求企业搬迁或关闭。

GUOWUYUAN《DAQIWURANFANGZHIXINGDONGJIHUATONGZHI》YAOQIUYANGESHISHIWURANWUPAIFANGZONGLIANGKONGZHI,JIANGERYANGHUALIU、DANYANGHUAWU、YANFENCHENHEHUIFAXINGYOUJIWUPAIFANGSHIFOUFUHEZONGLIANGKONGZHIYAOQIUZUOWEIJIANSHEXIANGMUHUANJINGYINGXIANGPINGJIASHENPIDEQIANZHITIAOJIAN,QIDAOLEEZHIXINZENGCHANNENGZUOYONG。《SHUINIGONGYEDAQIWURANWUPAIFANGBIAOZHUN》HE《SHUINIDANWEICHANPINNENGHAOXIAOHAOXIANEBIAOZHUN》DUIWOGUOSHUINIQIYENENGXIAOHEHUANBAOZHIBIAO,TICHULESHIJIEZUIYANGEDEGUANKONGBIAOZHUN。JINQI,SHENGTAIHUANJINGBUCHUTAI《ZHONGWURANTIANQIZHONGDIANXINGYEYINGJIJIANPAIJISHUZHINAN》,DUISHUINIXINGYEZAIZHONGWURANYUJINGQIJIANSHIXINGCHAYIHUAJIXIAOFENJIGUANKONG,BUTONGDENGJIDEQIYEZAISHENGCHANHEYUNSHUFANGMIANYOUBUTONGDEXIANZHIYAOQIU。

ZHANGQIDEHUANJINGZHIBIAOGUOZAIYALIHEDUANQIPINFANDEHUANBAOXINGZHENGDUCHA,SHIBIZAOCHENGSHUINIXINGYEYAJIANGUOZAICHANNENG。JIANYIYOUGUOJIAHEDIFANGZHENGFULIANHESHELI“GUOZAICHANNENG”JIEGOUDIAOZHENGZHUANXIANGJIJIN,YINDAO“GUOZAICHANNENG”YOUXUTUICHU,ZHEIJIANGSHIYIXIANGZHENGCECHUANGXIN。

3.压减低值产能:av在线播放网站是以实现土地资源效益最大化为原则,提升企业劳动生产率和土地资源利用率水平。自然资源部《节约集约利用土地规定》要求通过规模引导、布局优化、标准控制、市场配置、盘活利用等手段,达到节约土地、减量用地、提升用地强度、促进低效废弃地再利用、优化土地利用结构和布局、提高土地利用效率。自然资源主管部门将建立节约集约用地制度和相关标准规范,促进土地利用效率的提高,发挥市场在土地资源配置中的决定性作用。

YOUYUSHICHANGYINSU,SHUINIXINGYEHAIYOUXIANGDUISHULIANGDEXIAOGUIMOSHENGCHANXIANZHANGQICHUYUTINGCHANZHUANGTAI,SUCHENG“JIANGSHIQIYE ”HUO“JIANGSHICHANNENG”,ZHANYONGTUDIHEZICHAN,BUCHUANGZAOZHUBOFULIZAIXIAN CAIFU。ZHEIZHONGDIZHICHANNENGQIYE,LAODONGSHENGCHANLVDIHETUDIZIYUANLIYONGLVSHUIPINGDI。JIANYIZAISHUINIXINGYEKAIZHANQIYETUDIZIYUANXIAOYIPINGJIATIXI,LIECHUDIZHICHANNENGQIYEMINGDAN,CHUTAIYINDAODIZHICHANNENGJINKUAITUICHUSHICHANG。

4.淘汰落后产能:是推动供给侧结构性改革、促进产业结构调整和节能减排的重要举措。落后产能是能耗、环保、安全、技术达不到标准和生产不合格产品或淘汰类产能。落后产能必须依法依规关停退出。产业政策明确规定对落后产能执行水、电价格政策,差别化信贷政策,强化信息公开,加强行业自律,媒体宣传引导,实施联合惩戒和信用约束。

av在线播放网站GUOWUYUANZAOYIBANFA《GUANYUJINYIBUJIAQIANGTAOTAILUOHOUCHANNENGGONGZUODETONGZHI》(GUOFA[2010]7HAO)、《GUANYUHUAJIECHANNENGYANZHONGGUOSHENGMAODUNDEZHIDAOYIJIAN》(GUOFA[2013]41HAO),2017NIANGONGXINBULIANHE15GEBUWEIXIAFA《GUANYULIYONGZONGHEBIAOZHUNYIFAYIGUITUIDONGLUOHOUCHANNENGTUICHUDEZHIDAOYIJIAN》(GONGXINBULIANCHANYE[2017]30HAO),JIANLI16BUWEITAOTAILUOHOUCHANNENGGONGZUOBUJIXIEDIAOXIAOZU,DUIGANGTIE、MEITAN、SHUINI、DIANJIELV、PINGBANBOLIDENGZHONGDIANXINGYE,YIWANSHANNENGHAO、HUANBAO、ZHILIANG、ANQUAN、JISHUWEIZHUDEZONGHEBIAOZHUNTIXI,YANGECHANGTAIHUAZHIFAHEQIANGZHIXINGBIAOZHUNSHISHI,XINGCHENGDUOBIAOZHUN、DUOBUMEN、DUOQUDAOXIETONGTUIJINGONGZUOGEJU,JIANLISHICHANGHUA、FAZHIHUATAOTAILUOHOUCHANNENGZHANGXIAOJIZHI。16BUWEILIANHEYANGEZHIFAJIANGUAN,JIAQIANGJIANDUJIANCHA,DUITAOTAILUOHOUCHANNENGJINZHANJIAOMANDEDIFANGCAIQUTONGBAO、YUETANDENGFANGSHIJINXINGDUBAN。GENJUWENJIANDUIXINGYEXIEHUIDEYAOQIU,ZHONGGUOSHUINIXIEHUILVXIANZUJIANLECHANYEZHENGCEZHUANJIAZU,JISHIPEIHE16BUWEIJINXINGQUANGUODUCHAGONGZUO。

三、认识水泥去产能任务的长期性和艰巨性

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av在线播放网站QUCHANNENGDEZULILAIZIDUOFANGMIAN,YOUFALVDE、JINGJIDE、MINSHENGDEWENTI,YEYOULAIZIQIYEZISHENHEGEBIEDIFANGZHENGFUDEZULI。YIBIANZAIJIANKUDEQUCHANNENG,GEBIEDIFANGZHENGFUHAIZAIZHAOSHANGYINZIJIANSHUINICHANG,WEICHANNENGYANZHONGGUOSHENGDESHUINIXINGYE“TIANZHUANJIAWA”。

四、水泥去产能的市场化创新试点

《GUANYUCUJINJIANCAIGONGYEWENZENGZHANGDIAOJIEGOUZENGXIAOYIDEZHIDAOYIJIAN》(GUOBANFA[2016]34HAO)ZAI“WANSHANZHICHIZHENGCE”ZHANGJIEZHONG,MINGQUEYAOQIUZHICHI“TANSUOYOUDAXINGGUGANSHUINIQIYEHEPINGBANBOLIQIYEANZHAOSHEISHOUYI、SHEIFUFEIDEYUANZE,LIANHESHELICHANYEJIEGOUDIAOZHENGZHUANXIANGZIJIN,ZHUANMENYONGYUJIANGBUZHUDONGTUICHUDECHANNENG。”ZHEIXIANGZHENGCELUOSHINANDUDA,GONGXINBUHEZHONGGUOSHUINIXIEHUIDOUTUIDONGLEBUFENSHENGSHIKAIZHANJIEGOUDIAOZHENGCHUANGXINSHIDIANPINGTAI,BINGXIWANGJIEZHUCHUANGXINSHIDIANPINGTAISHELIQUCHANNENGZHUANXIANGJIJIN,DANZHEIXIANGGONGZUOMEIYOUDEDAOYOUGUANXINGZHENGZHIFABUMENDELIJIEHEZHICHI。WENTIYEXUCHUZAIQUESHAOYIGEZHENGFUBUMEN《GUANYUZHICHISHELICHANYEJIEGOUDIAOZHENGZHUANXIANGZIJINDEZHIDAOYIJIAN》。ZHUANXIANGJIJINDEQIANKEYIQIYECHU,ZHENGFUBUMENDEYOUYIGERUHEGUIFANCAOZUODESHISHIXIZE,RANGQIYEGUIBITOUZIHECAOZUOFENGXIAN,DADANKAIZHANCHUANGXINSHIDIANGONGZUO。

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五、结论

av在线播放网站SHUINIXINGYEDEYAJIANCHANNENGBAOHANGUOSHENGCHANNENG、GUOZAICHANNENG、DIZHICHANNENG、LUOHOUCHANNENG。ZAIZHONGGUOTESEZHUBOFULIZAIXIAN ZHUYIZHIDUXIA,ZHENGZHIDAOXIANGJUEDINGLEJINGJIFAZHANFANGXIANG,CHANYEZHENGCEJUEDINGLEXINGYEFAZHANFANGXIANG。SHUINIXINGYEYAJIANCHANNENG、JIEGOUDIAOZHENGXUYAOZHENGFUDUOBUMENDEXIETONGTUIJIN,CHANYEZHENGCEDEYINDAOSHIXINGYEQUCHANNENGDEGUANJIAN。

QUCHANNENGXUYAOLILUNCHUANGXINHESHIJIANCHUANGXIN,GONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEDEHEXINSHIGAIGE,GAIGEJIUCUNZAIFENGXIAN。SHUINIXINGYEZAIGULIQIYESHICHANGZHENGHETIGAOCHANYEJIZHONGDU,ZAIJIAQIANGXINGYEZILVTUIXINGCUOFENGSHENGCHAN,YOUQIZAIZUJIANJIEGOUDIAOZHENGCHUANGXINSHIDIANSHELIQUCHANNENGZHUANXIANGJIJINFANGMIANDEGAIGE,HUODUOHUOSHAODOUHUICHUJIXIANYOUFALVFAGUI,XUYAOZHENGFUBUMENCHUTAIGULIZHENGCE。

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BENWANGZHUANZAIBINGZHUMINGQITALAIYUANDEGAOJIAN,SHIBENZHEWEIDUZHECHUANDIGENGDUOXINXIZHIMUDE,BINGBUYIWEIZHEZANTONGQIGUANDIANHUOZHENGSHIQINEIRONGDEZHENSHIXING。QITAMEITI、WANGZHANHUOGERENCONGBENWANGZHUANZAISHIYONGSHI,BIXUBAOLIUBENWANGZHUMINGDEGAOJIANLAIYUAN,JINZHISHANZICUANGAIGAOJIANLAIYUAN,BINGZIFUBANQUANDENGFALVZEREN。WEIFANZHEBENWANGYEJIANGYIFAZHUIJIUZEREN。

RUBENWANGZHUANZAIGAOSHEJIBANQUANDENGWENTI,QINGZUOZHEZAILIANGZHOUNEIJINKUAILAIDIANHUOLAIHANLIANXI。

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